Under the 2011 map, Republicans now fill 13 of Pennsylvania's 18 seats in the U.S. House - or 72 percent - despite winning 54 percent of the statewide congressional vote in 2016. While it also showed Florida Republicans' advantage in Congress was slightly more than should've been expected, it wasn't to the point that clearly indicated gerrymandering.
"There's one answer for that, one word: gerrymander", said Terry Madonna, director of the Center for Politics and Public Affairs at Franklin & Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to hear an appeal.
But "part of it is the gerrymandering issue, in that districts are simply drawn in such a way that it is very difficult" for Democrats to win in many parts of the state, Beatty added. The efficiency gap formula compares the statewide average share of the vote a party receives in each district with the statewide percentage of seats it wins, taking into account a common political expectation: For each 1 percentage point gain in its statewide vote share, a party normally increases its seat share by 2 percentage points. That was especially true after the 2010 census, when new Republican majorities took control of the redistricting process.
"Republicans really put their foot on the gas when Bush got elected", said Steve Schale, a Democratic political consultant.
Republicans acknowledge the 2002 rewrite favored their party.
Republican House Speaker David Ralston has said lawmakers were merely "trying to put communities of interest together".
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Torr said he plans to reintroduce the bill in the next legislative session ahead of the upcoming redistricting.
It usually works by either splitting up voters from an opposing party across several districts to dilute their vote-called "cracking"-or concentrating them in one district so their votes are over-concentrated on a single race - called "packing".
Those behind the amendment successfully sued to have U.S. House and state Senate maps redrawn because they didn't meet constitutional muster, but state House maps went unchallenged.
Barbuto was a state representative from Rock Springs from 2008 to 2013 when he was ousted by Republican Rep. Mark Baker. Nevada's districts were decided by a court, but Republicans complained at the time that they appeared more favorable to Democrats.
"You end up having these extreme ideas instead of those that are more central", he said, because candidates only have to please their party's voters.
"I can look at the map - and I'm not a political analyst - and see that it favors the Republican Party", Redmon said.
Experts interviewed by the Associated Press acknowledged those factors, but the new analysis shows partisan gerrymandering also likely plays a significant role.