Doctors who deciphered body's response to oxygen win Nobel Medicine Prize

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Doctors William Kaelin Jr. of Harvard University in Massachusetts, Gregg Semenza of Johns Hopkins University in Maryland and Sir Peter Ratcliffe of Oxford University will share this year's prize.

Among the writers who have been making a buzz include Poland's Olga Tokarczuk, Kenya's Ngugi Wa Thiong'o, Ismail Kadare of Albania, Joyce Carol Oates of the U.S. and Japan's Haruki Murakami, say critics questioned by AFP.

It's not the only Nobel prize - there are others including Literature, Chemistry and Physics.

The Nobel Committee chose to award Semenza, Kaelin, and Ratcliffe with the honor due to their research on how cells sense and respond to changes in oxygen availability, according to a press release from the committee. His group found that HIF-1 responds to low oxygen levels by controlling which genes are used in a cell.

In Baltimore, Semenza said it was when he and colleagues were studying a gene in a rare cell type in the kidney and they did an experiment that showed the factor they discovered - which was linked to oxygen - that suggested it had widespread physiological importance.

Johnson added, "Scientists often toss around this phrase 'textbook discovery.' But I'd say this is really a textbook discovery".

"You should enter science because you are fascinated by it ... that's what I did".

Much of that regulation, previous research established, is controlled by a hormone called erythropoietin (EPO), which boosts the concentration of oxygen-carrying red blood cells.

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"The basic question is how the cancer cells can survive the lack-of-oxygen condition, and how what doesn't kill them can make them stronger", Zhang said.

Peebles thanked the Nobel committee for the award but said his advice to young people wanting to go into science would be not to be lured by the prospect of such prizes.

"The work they have done is already leading the way to drugs that manipulate oxygen-sensing pathways", said Murray. Then when he called the second number he finally managed to get through to the Nobel laureate, who we understand was very pleased to be named among this year's winners. The laureates receive them at an ceremony in Stockholm on December 10, together with five other Nobel winners.

Thomas Perlmann, secretary of the Nobel Committee, just said he had managed to speak with all the laureates.

This year will see two literature prizes handed out because the one last year was suspended after a scandal rocked the Swedish Academy.

Kaelin also received an honorary degree from Duke in 2018 and the Duke University School of Medicine Distinguished Alumni Award in 2007.

The 2019 Prize in economic sciences will be announced on Monday, Oct. 14.

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