Commons Leader Andrea Leadsom indicated the attorney general's full and final advice would be released on Wednesday.
Speaker John Bercow gave the green light to a debate and vote on the motion of contempt after a demand from the six opposition parties.
The vote also orders the immediate publication of the "final and full" legal advice on the Brexit deal.
Opponents believe the advice will reveal Attorney General Geoffrey Cox's misgivings about the Brexit agreement.
The government had attempted to have the issue referred to the cross-party Privileges Committee in a prior vote but the proposal was defeated by four votes.
The parliamentary showdown delayed for several hours the start of debate on the Brexit deal.
The defeat means the government will now have to publish the legal advice given to Cabinet ministers on the Brexit deal - despite insisting it would not be in the national interest to do so.
Theresa May has made a last-ditch attempt to rally MPs behind her Brexit deal after suffering the historic humiliation of seeing her Government found in contempt of Parliament.
A cross-party motion was filed by a group of MPs, including Labour, DUP, Lib Dems, SNP.
They hope this will allow parliament to express its support for alternative approaches - and prevent the government either hurtling towards a no-deal Brexit without the backing of MPs, or imposing a plan B of its own devising.
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Advocate general Manuel Campos Sanchez-Bordona's non-binding opinion said Article 50 allows the "unilateral revocation of the notification of the intention to withdraw from the European Union, until such time as the Withdrawal Agreement is formally concluded".
She has toured the country and television studios to try to sell her deal, but a move to present her government's legal advice to Parliament seemed to backfire on Monday.
Mrs May said MPs had a duty to deliver on the 2016 Brexit vote and the deal on offer was an "honourable compromise".
If her deal falls in the "meaningful vote" next week, the PM has 21 calendar days to set out a statement on her next steps.
Another critical vote on the Brexit deal is fast approaching.
The guidance is not binding on the Luxembourg court, which is considering the issue in response to a request from British parliamentarians.
MPs' decisions over the next week would "set the course our country takes for decades to come", she said.
"We as 27 have a clear position on fair competition, on fish, and on the subject of the EU's regulatory autonomy, and that forms part of our position for the future relationship talks", said Macron.
She says her deal will maintain close economic ties with the European Union while enabling Britain to trade more freely with the rest of the world and meet voters' demands to reduce immigration.
Reflecting on her personal journey, May added: "I have spent almost two years negotiating this deal".