Who the United States and China have trade disputes with

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China declared Friday the "biggest trade war in economic history" is now under way after Beijing implemented retaliatory tariffs on some imports in response to USA duties taking effect.

At midnight Washington time, the US imposed new tariffs on $34 billion of annual imports from China. They kicked in just after midnight ET, which is noon in Beijing.

After the US imposed 25 percent tariffs on $34 billion worth of Chinese goods, China retaliated by imposing tariffs on the same amount of USA products.

In mid-June Trump acknowledged a lack of progress and refusal of China to change its "unfair" trading practices, including theft of intellectual property.

Beijing insists it's the injured party.

China lodged a case with the World Trade Organisation against the USA, its commerce ministry said on Friday. It accused the US of igniting "the biggest trade war in economic history".

The Chinese Foreign Ministry said "retaliatory tariffs" also took effect, but provided no other details.

USA exporters stand to lose, as they will miss out on the massive tariff reductions by the Chinese government, which is determined to open its market wider.

China is expected to match the move with a 25 percent levy on U.S. goods to the same value on the same day. Beijing has announced reforms this year including ending limits on foreign ownership in its auto industry, but none directly addresses complaints that are fueling its conflict with Washington. President Donald Trump on Friday announced that the US could impose additional tariffs on more than $500 billion in Chinese imports, or roughly the total amount of Chinese imports annually into the USA, according to an article from Reuters.

Economists say that if the back-and-forth stops there, the overall impact on both economies will be minimal even though some industries will suffer.

Touching on China's massive trade surpluses with the United States, Trump told his audience, "They've been killing us".

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With these new protectionist policies, President Trump's main goal is to reduce the flow of Chinese imports and push American consumers to buy domestically-made products. Beijing called it the beginning of "the biggest trade war in economic history" and retaliated with tariffs on billions of dollars worth of USA exports.

Maarten-Jan Bakkum, a strategist at NN Investment Partners, a Netherlands-based asset manager, said in emailed comments that "protectionist measures by one country could potentially spiral out of control, leading to more retaliation by more countries, eventually affecting a bigger share of Chinese (emerging market) and global exports".

President Donald Trump has threatened to extend tariffs to $US200 billion of Chinese imports (the United States imports around $US500 billion in goods from China each year).

At 12:01 a.m. on July 6 in Washington - noon in Beijing - the United States began imposing tariffs on $34 billion in Chinese goods.

'We urge the two governments to come back to the negotiation table, ' said Zarit.

Trade disputes are nothing new for the two economic superpowers, and they are not confined to targeting each other.

Despite three rounds of negotiations between the two sides, including a Chinese pledge to significantly increase purchases of American products, Trump chose to go ahead with the tariffs. It also is rooted in the clash between American notions of free trade and Beijing's state-led development model.

Wilson estimated that $1.4 billion to $1.8 billion in North Dakota soybeans are exported to China annually.

Germany is infuriated by Trump as he has threatened to impose 20 percent of tariffs on German cars, which form the backbone of the German manufacturing sector. "The real battle will be on the flanks", in unnecessary inspections, quarantines, and heightened scrutiny, said James Zimmerman, a partner in the Beijing office of Perkins Cole LLP, an worldwide law firm, the Post reported.

Some of Trump's fellow Republicans in Congress lashed out at his actions.

The two giant economies appear ready to see which side can endure the most pain.