The risk of dementia increased with the number and severity of injuries, and even concussion was linked with a higher risk of dementia. The highest risk of dementia was seen in the first six months after TBI (hazard ratio, 4.06), and the risk also increased with an increasing number of TBI events (hazard ratios, 1.22 to 2.83 for one TBI to five or more TBIs).
This included "less severe" injuries such as concussion.
Dementia affects 47 million people worldwide, a number expected to double in the next 20 years.
"Our findings do not suggest that everyone who suffers a traumatic brain injury will go on to develop dementia in later life".
Researchers obtained their TBI data from the Danish National Patient Register, while information on dementia involved a combination of data from the National Patient Register, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Prescription Registry. Each year, there are ten million new patients.
A traumatic brain injury can be caused by a fall, a traffic accident, a sports accident or a violent attack.
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The study also found that the younger a person was when they sustained the TBI, the higher their subsequent risk of developing dementia. Every year, more than 50 million people worldwide experience a TBI.
They found 132,093 people had a TBI at some point between 1977-2013, and 126,734 were diagnosed with a form of dementia between 1999 and 2013. Among first TBI diagnoses, 85 percent had been characterized as mild and 15 percent had been characterized as severe or skull fracture.
For each of three survival analyses that the researchers used to determine the long-term risk of dementia after TBI, three prespecified models were used: different time periods since the TBI, multiple TBIs and sex.
"TBI was associated with an increased risk of dementia both compared with people without a history of TBI and with people with non-TBI trauma", the authors write. As a outcome of those injuries, the CDC said 230,000 people are hospitalized and survive, 50,000 die and 80,000 to 90,000 experience the onset of long-term disability.
Chesterfield's Ernie Moss is still the club's highest goalscorer, but requires round the clock care as he battles his dementia. "But there was an increased risk", said Fann.
The authors note some limitations, including that the study included people taken from one country with a fairly similar ethnic population, so the findings can not be generalised to all ethnic groups in other countries. "The association of TBI with different causes and how these change across time needs policy attention, as it is likely that prevention needs to be considered at societal, community, and local levels".