Uber's drivers can continue to operate in the capital while the firm pursues an appeal against the decision from the regulator, Transport for London (TfL).
Mr Khosrowshahi has vowed to "make things right" in London after TfL expressed concerns over Uber's approach to public safety and security.
A Transport for London spokesman also called the talks constructive and said further "steps in this process will take place over the coming weeks".
The meeting comes a day after the resignation of Uber's United Kingdom boss, Jo Bertram, who quit just 10 days after the licence decision was announced, though she said the departure was unrelated to that decision.
Among the issues raised by Transport for London include how Uber reports serious criminal offences, how drivers' medical certificates are obtained, and how criminal record checks are conducted.
Last month, TfL said it would strip the firm of its licence to operate in the city.
First left-arm spinner to 400 Test wickets
He plays with positive intent and the hosts would hope for him to make a significant contribution. Looking to the future, yes, he is 39, a little bit old now, but he always tries to do his best.
Mr Khosrowshahi took over at Uber in August after predecessor Travis Kalanick resigned following a series of scandals. London Mayor Sadiq Khan, a Labour politician, supports the regulator's decision, while UK Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader Theresa May said in a BBC interview on Thursday that the city's plan threatened jobs and is "disproportionate".
Uber is facing many challenges in the United Kingdom market.
The new boss has apologised for "the mistakes we've made" and accepted that the company had "got things wrong".
"An exciting new opportunity has arisen that will allow me to apply what I've learnt here and I'll be able to share more details with you soon", she said.
"While we haven't been asked to make any changes, we'd like to know what we can do", Uber's general manager in London, Tom Elvidge, told The Sunday Times last week.
More than 800,000 people have signed a petition calling on TfL to reverse its decision and renew Uber's license.
The discussion would influence the fate of 40,000 drivers operating in the capital.