When a Syrian army SU-22 jet later dropped bombs near the US -backed forces, it was immediately shot down by a U.S. F/A-18E Super Hornet, the statement said.
Washington says that the Syrian warplane "dropped bombs near SDF fighters south of Tabqah" and was shot down in accordance with "rules of engagement" of Coalition partnered forces.
Meanwhile, Syria has slammed the incident as a "flagrant attack".
Over the last four weeks, the US has conducted three airstrikes at pro-regime Assad forces, backed by Iran, that have moved into a deconfliction zone around the town of at Tanf in southwest Syria, which is the location of a coalition training base for local forces fighting ISIS.
The Syrian army said its warplane had been on a mission against IS when it came under fire, according to state television. On a couple of occasions, the USA had to use drones and warplanes to attack these Shi'a militias to attack an American training area for Syrian rebels.
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The U.S. had not shot down a Syrian regime aircraft before Sunday's confrontation, said Navy Capt. Jeff Davis, a Pentagon spokesman.
Selo said the attacks targeted SDF areas near the town of Tabqa and the adjacent dam, Syria's largest, which the alliance of Kurdish and Arab militias captured from Islamic State militants in May.
The US also launched US launched 59 Tomahawk cruise missiles at Syria's Shayrat airbase in April, earlier this year, in response to a suspected chemical weapons attack by the Syrian government in the country's Idlib province.
The US-led coalition has in recent weeks escalated its aerial bombing campaign in northern Syria and Raqqa province. Coalition aircraft stopped the pro-regime forces from advancing on Ja'Din.
The regime confirmed the report, saying the plane crashed and the pilot was missing.
The incident comes the same day as the Syrian regime's ally Iran conducted airstrikes targeting ISIS in Syria. The coalition also said that Russian officers had been contacted on a special "de-confliction" hotline in an effort to halt the regime's attack.