Rollins, who took Olympic gold in the 100-meter hurdles previous year at Rio 2016, passed 16 drugs tests in 2016, though has received the minimum suspension that is required after what is known as three whereabout failures.
The 25-year-old, who also won gold at the World Championships in 2013, missed three out-of-competition drug tests, due to failing to update her whereabouts to WADA.
American Brianna Rollins shows off her gold medal from the 100m women's hurdles at the Rio Olympics.
"However, under the rules of worldwide Olympic sport, including the IAAF Anti-Doping Policy, the United States Olympic Committee National Anti-Doping Policies, and the USADA Protocol for Olympic and Paralympic Movement Testing (the USADA Protocol), all of which have adopted the World Anti-Doping Code, the combination of three whereabouts failures within a 12-month period constitutes a rule violation".
In a news release, her attorneys said at least one of her missed tests resulted from "confusion created by the computer program" that required her to list her locations.
"This is a hard case because it involves the imposition of a serious penalty on a brilliant athlete who is not charged or suspected of using banned substances of any kind", it said.
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"Two of Rollins" missed tests came following her Olympic success. She failed to update here whereabouts when going to The White House to meet President Barack Obama following her Olympic triumph. In the whereabouts system, athletes must not only account for where they will be each day, but they must specify one hour a day where they will be at a specific location. This is a very unpleasant experience, but I am able to see where errors were made.
Rollins is the highest profile athlete to be banned for missing three out-of-competition drugs tests since Britain's Christine Ohuruogu in 2006.
Rollins won Rio gold in the absence of Pearson and world record-holder Kendra Harrison in the unremarkable time of 12.48 seconds.
"It is with my deepest regrets that I will have to miss the 2017 outdoor season", Rollins said in a statement. "I will accept the sanction and prepare myself for my return in 2018".
Her management agency Stellar Athletics pointed out that Rollins had received the minimal suspension possible after a hearing before the American Arbitration Association (AAA). "Only after the third Incident, when it was too late, did they help her fashion her response".